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Passive safety: A protection programme for every eventuality
OverviewActive safety: Helpful assistantsAerodynamics: As sleek as they comeFit for off-road excursions - Multi-talented: The new Mercedes-Benz GLAMultimedia features: Always well informed and entertainedPassive safety: A protection programme for every eventualitySuspension: The right set-up for every useThe body: Stable foundationThe design: Quality and self-assuranceThe engines: Four and 4x4The Mercedes-Benz management team on the GLA: "Element of our strategy for the future"The model range: Many ideas for individualisationThe transmissions: Shifting comfort combined with efficiencyUnder the microscope: endurance testing - A vehicle lifespan at time lapse speedUnder the microscope: GLA Edition 1 - Special incentive at the startUnder the microscope: Renewable raw materials - High-tech parcel shelfUnder the microscope: 4MATIC - Added traction
"One star is all you need" – the Mercedes-Benz safety philosophy also applies to the new GLA-Class. Its safety equipment includes belt tensioners and belt force limiters for the rear seats, too, the PRE-SAFE® anticipatory occupant protection system and the active bonnet for pedestrian protection. The line-up also features seven airbags as standard and the Mercedes automatic emergency call system.
The new GLA-Class has passed the brand's rigorous programme of crash tests. This includes not only some 30 different impact configurations, which are laid down as requirements for safety ratings and international type approval, but also nine proprietary crash tests, such as the roof-drop test or the pole impact test, developed by the brand itself. In the tests, as a matter of principle Mercedes-Benz uses the engines from which one can expect the highest loads on the body.
The bodyshell structure provides the basis for the high standard of passive safety, both in terms of material and with regard to its structural design. Key features of the front-end structure are the systematic implementation of an available crash length, load distribution over several planes, the new bulkhead and floor concept and the subframe as a deformation element.
A total of three longitudinal member planes – consisting of the straight front longitudinal members with inserted crash boxes made from extruded aluminium box sections, a second, upper plane as an extension of the load-bearing structure at the A-pillar node in the mirror triangle sector and a third plane at the bottom in front of the subframe – enable the controlled reduction of impact energy.
The subframe provides the torque support for the transverse engine/transmission block and serves to attach the components for the front axle and steering. It consists of several steel plates, some in ultra-high-strength steel, and a hydroformed tube. In order to optimise its deformation properties, the subframe is connected via two aluminium struts leading forward to the aluminium radiator mount located under the front end. In the event of a frontal impact, forces can be discharged at an early juncture into the subframe via this third load path, in order to ensure the best possible energy dissipation.
A plastic crash wedge which is fitted at the rear of the front wheel arches helps to ensure that the wheels do not slide under the front doors in the event of a high-impact crash, irrespective of the turning angles. This means that it will be possible to open the doors, even after a serious accident.
The bulkhead also incorporates a special feature: so-called "skate runners" in front of the two middle longitudinal members discharge forces into the floor. The continuous floor structure consists of a total of four straight longitudinal members. The tunnel roof reinforcements at front and rear combine with the tunnel to provide a further closed profile supporting the front end.
Protection in side-on crashes through controlled deformation
Rigid side structures and defined deformation management help to safeguard the survival space for occupants in the event of a side impact. Elements here include a member fitted diagonally in the rear footwell between centre tunnel and floor side wall which is intended to prevent the floor from being torn open in the event of side impact with a tree.
In the upper sector of the B-pillar high strength steels are used in order to ensure that as little intrusion as possible occurs, and that the passenger cell remains as intact as possible in the event of a side impact. In the lower sector, on the other hand, the B-pillar is designed to be softer, in order to enable energy reduction. In this manner, deformation is directed to a few critical areas beneath the seating surface and transferred to the other vehicle side via the tubular structures in the front seats, transversal members and massive transmission bridge in the main floor.
Extensive pedestrian protection measures including active bonnet
The protection of those road users who are most at risk has always been a top priority during the development of Mercedes passenger cars. The new GLA-Class features numerous protective measures designed to help lessen the risk of injury to pedestrians. For example, in order to reduce the loads which arise in the event of a pedestrian impact on the bonnet of the vehicle, the deformation space between the bonnet and the components beneath it has been optimised. This is achieved in part through the appropriate positioning of components such as control units or fluid reservoirs in the engine compartment.
The GLA-Class also features an active bonnet. In the event of a collision with a pedestrian, sophisticated sensors combined with intelligent algorithms trigger pyrotechnical actuators in the area of the bonnet hinges. These raise the bonnet by 60 millimetres. The additional space which this creates between the bonnet and the components in the engine compartment means that a pedestrian's head is subject to comparatively low internal acceleration forces on impact.
The deformation characteristics of the bonnet have been developed specifically to meet these requirements. Reductions in the impact loads can be achieved by using aluminium and reinforcing the inside face of the bonnet.
Intelligent restraint systems
The GLA-Class protects its passengers with up to nine airbags. The standard complement comprises driver and front-passenger airbag, a kneebag for the driver, large thorax-pelvisbags incorporated in the seat to protect the chest, stomach and pelvis area, and windowbags. The windowbags extend over both rows of seats to the A-pillar triangle. They serve to protect the occupants' heads from hard contact in the event of side impact and can also help to keep limbs inside the vehicle in an accident. The driver and front passenger airbags operate in two stages, according to the expected severity of impact. The gas generator first of all fills the driver's airbag with 80 and the front passenger's airbag with 60 percent gas. If a more severe impact is forecast, the second stage of the gas generator will additionally be activated after a delay and the airbags will be filled at a higher pressure level. Sidebags for the rear are optionally available.
The high safety expertise of the GLA-Class's developers is reflected in a host of details. The deformable steering column yields by up to 100 millimetres when the driver exerts pressure on the airbag as a result of forward displacement in an accident, for example. The comfort features also reveal a fine touch: the driver's airbag is connected to a vibration absorber in the steering wheel to reduce vibrations, for example.
Comprehensive precautionary measures in the rear
In developing the new GLA-Class, the Mercedes-Benz safety experts have also attached great importance to the safety of the rear-seat occupants. The new model therefore meets the relevant requirements of the Japanese and Chinese NCAP institutes, which also take account of factors such as the ease of use of the rear seat belts. Experts believe that Euro NCAP will extend its rating programme to include rear-seat safety in the medium term. The GLA-Class is already prepared for this and is a role model in this respect – both within and beyond its own vehicle category – with features such as standard-fit belt tensioners and belt force limiters for the outer rear seats. A torsion bar in the roller mechanism twists when the load on it exceeds a defined level. In this way the belt force is limited and with it the load on the seat occupant.
The GLA-Class's features also include the standard-fit ISOFIX child seat securing system on the outer seats. Child seats can additionally be fixed to the vehicle by means of special anchorage points with top tethers.
PRE-SAFE® anticipatory occupant protection system
The PRE-SAFE® anticipatory occupant protection system is available in the GLA-Class as an option. This represents a further step in the ongoing democratisation of this innovation, which was premiered in the S-Class in 2002.
PRE-SAFE® from Mercedes-Benz uses the time between detection of a potential accident situation and a possible collision to initiate preventive protection measures, thus reducing the loads exerted on the occupants in the event of a crash by up to 40 percent.
Core features of PRE-SAFE® are reversible belt tensioning, the closing of side windows and sliding sunroof when critical lateral dynamics are detected and adjustment of the fully electric front passenger seat with memory function to an ideal position for maximum effectiveness of the restraint systems.
PRE-SAFE® is activated when one of the following parameters is met: emergency braking, panic braking, pronounced over- or understeering, critical steering movements or heavy support by adaptive Brake Assist.
Automatic Mercedes-Benz emergency call
In combination with COMAND Online, the new GLA-Class is equipped with the Mercedes-Benz emergency call system. As long as COMAND Online is connected to a mobile phone, the Mercedes-Benz emergency call system can rapidly automatically alert the emergency services in the event of a serious accident.
After the airbags or the pyrotechnical belt tensioners are triggered, the vehicle's exact GPS position and vehicle identification number (VIN) are sent by SMS to a special emergency centre, with positional data also being transmitted using the DTMF method (dual-tone multi-frequency) at the same time. Even if the occupants are unconscious or unsure of exactly where they are because they are on a holiday trip, for example, the emergency services alerted by the emergency centre will be notified quickly with accurate information. The driver can also make the emergency call manually as "MB emergency call" is always the first entry in the system phone directory.
On receiving the call, the emergency centre establishes voice contact with the vehicle occupants in a matter of seconds. A particularly practical aspect in an emergency is that communications are conducted not in the language of the country where the accident has occurred but in the language which the driver has preset in COMAND Online.
Other than any mobile phone communication charges, which would only arise in the event of an actual emergency call, no charges are incurred by the driver for the emergency call facility and no contractual relationship – other than the regular mobile phone contract – is required.